TROPTIONS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Understanding the world of cryptocurrency cannot be underestimated.  Please refer to our frequently asked questions below.
And of course please f
eel free to contact us for more information!

TROPTIONS stands for Trade Options. This new kind of money gives the holders at least three options.

They can be:

  1. Exchanged for goods and services in a direct peer to peer barter system therefore bypassing the middle-man and his fees.
  2. Stored with no expiration date or system tax.
  3. Traded in a marketplace in exchange for cash or other digital assets called tokens or coins.
  4. Use as Asset on balance sheet.
  5. Use as Proof of funds.
  6. Leverage.
  7. Buy Goods and Services.
  8. Sell
  9. Earnest ,Escrow funds or Insurance wraps.
  10. Collateral.

TROPTIONS has an ecosystem built around it serviced and managed by TROPTIONS Holders. This entity exists to facilitate the usefulness and utility of TROPTIONS for the holders by:

  1. Providing education and assistance in the best practices of TROPTIONS use.

  2. Increasing the marketplace for TROPTIONS purchases

  3. Promoting increased visibility and value of TROPTIONS in national and international trading markets.

TROPTIONS is a unit of monetary purchasing power that can be acquired with cash, products, services and labor. Once TROPTIONS are acquired, they are protected with high security cryptography. Unlike U.S. Dollars, TROPTIONS cannot be counterfeited or double spent. They also can’t be controlled by a third party.

The electronic account that holds TROPTIONS, called a wallet, is totally under the power of the owner of that wallet to spend, sell, exchange or otherwise dispose of TROPTIONS as the wallet owner sees fit.

No central authority or governing body can, in any way, restrict the holder of a TROPTIONS wallet and therefore no one entity can stop the flow of TROPTIONS to anyone or from anyone.

  • TROPTIONS are designated as a product by the IRS and a commodity by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
  • TROPTIONS are NOT a security and therefore not under the auspices of the SEC.

  • TROPTIONS, though a product/commodity, act like and can be used as a currency to purchase goods and services and initiate transactions in the categories of business, personal or investments.

TROPTIONS is a hybrid financial instrument that has:

  • The commodity backing of a barter dollar, but is not a barter dollar
  • The purchasing power of a currency, but is not a currency
  • The trading and value growth potential of a stock, but it is not a stock.
  • By the summer of 2020 Basel 111 Compliant.

TROPTIONS take the inherent, inert, potential power of unused capacity, underutilized assets, idle equipment and sidelined labor and turns it into dynamic financial energy.
TROPTIONS opens up an exchange with a myriad of options never possible before. If you have a property or business opportunity that’s “stuck”, exchanging for Troptions may be an extremely attractive alternative. Troptions can be insured in a wrap.

The Troptions  has been in existence for sixteen years but created the Troptions cryptocurrency in 2017. The usual path for a cryptocurrency is for it to be created and then to undergo an Initial Coin Offering (ICO). An ICO has been named to mimic an IPO and it has some of the same effects: the coin is more publicly available and traded after the ICO and the ICO is used as an opportunity to increase the investment in the coin and its market capitalization. However, some coins have used ICOs as ways to issue stock without going through all the required paperwork for an IPO. As a result, some countries (e.g., China) have banned ICOs.

Troptions has embraced the IRS designation of cryptocurrency as a product because it fits very well with the Troptions model. Troptions  scheduled  and Iaunched  on November 11, 2017 treating it as an international product launch rather than an IPO-like stock launch. Troptions will soon be available on the major cryptocurrency exchanges and will become much more liquid.

Over the past year, Troptions have been used to purchase many different assets including hotels, land, other real estate, fine art,cars,trucks, companies, web services, and has been used to pay employees. Unlike most cryptocurrencies that are little more than a white paper, Troptions is already being used as a currency and exchange medium. The reality of the deals XTroptions.Gold has resulted in price increases from a few cents to the current price of $299.97 per XTroption.Gold (roughly a 1500% increase in less than a year). The announced Iaunched price on November 11 was $11.00 for XTroptions.AUS and today they are over $200.00

 .The current status of Troptions and its current price can be viewed at: http:www.xchain.io/asset/xtroptions.aus

In summary, Troptions has one of the best business models of any cryptocurrency, has already risen dramatically and is poised for continued increase supported by the purchase of real assets. The summer of 2020 Troptions will be Basel 111 compliant.

In the last seven years the purchasing power of the U.S. Dollar has fallen from being worth
four cents to two cents. Euros have roughly tracked dollars as well – a 50% LOSS in purchasing power!

In the last seven years Bitcoin went from being worth one cent to over 5,000 dollars – a 500,000% GAIN in purchasing power!

Troptions is a new cryptocurrency,  launch in November 11, 2017. In essence, Troptions is where Bitcoin was a few years ago. There is no guarantee that it will have the same meteoric rise as Bitcoin, but a small fraction of the increase would be sufficient to outperform other investment vehicles while also providing all of Troptions other advantages (privacy, international use, exchange directly for other assets, security).

The current monetary policy pursued by all nations is to ensure that modest inflation on the order of 2-3% occurs annually. Inflation, however, acts as a hidden tax on fiat currency (like dollars and euros) reducing its value steadily. Cryptocurrency (at least so far) has instead increased its value and purchasing power. Holding Troptions, like holding other assets, can preserve value and purchasing power in a form that is immune from any nation’s efforts to con

According to Investopia “The blockchain is seen as the main technological innovation of Bitcoin, since it stands as proof of all the transactions on the network. A block is the ‘current’ part of a blockchain which records some or all of the recent transactions, and once completed goes into the blockchain as permanent database.”

Blockchain is a type of distributed ledger or decentralized database that keeps records of digital transactions. Rather than having a central administrator like a bank, a distributed ledger has a network of replicated databases, synchronized via the Internet and visible to anyone within the network. Blockchain networks can be private, like an intranet, or public, like the Internet. The TROPTIONS network is private.

When a digital transaction is carried out, it is grouped together in a cryptographically protected block with other transactions that have occurred in the last 10 minutes and sent out to the entire network. Miners (members in the network with high levels of computing power) then compete to validate the transactions by solving complex coded problems. The first miner to solve the problems and validate the block receives a reward for that effort.

The validated block of transactions is then timestamped and added to a chain in a linear, chronological order. New blocks of validated transactions are linked to older blocks, making a chain of blocks that show every transaction made in the history of that blockchain. The entire chain is continually updated so that every ledger in the network is the same, giving each member the ability to prove who owns what at any given time.

Blockchain’s decentralized, open and cryptographic nature allow people to transact peer to peer. This makes the need for intermediaries obsolete. It also brings unprecedented security benefits. Hacking attacks that have impacted large centralized intermediaries like banks would be virtually impossible to pull off on the blockchain, which would require hacking into every ledger in the network simultaneously. Making blockchain even more secure is that each transaction has no information about each participant.

What is money?

We’re all accustomed to thinking about money or currency in a particular way — most times, as either the paper and coins we carry around, or the deposits we keep at banks to pay for things we buy. Also, as what we receive in exchange for something we do, such as providing labor (working) or capital (investing).

But if we dive a little deeper, currency actually represents limited entries in a database no one can change without fulfilling specific conditions. Whoa, let’s slow down and explain that.

To illustrate, take the physical notes and coins in your pocket. Aren’t they really limited entries in a database controlled by the Federal Reserve System? The Fed can expand and contract the money supply if it takes certain actions, but it is the only one with the “dollar database.”

Or take the money in your bank account: Isn’t it really just entries in a database that only the bank can change when specific conditions are met?

Money is all about a verified entry in some kind of database of accounts, balances and transactions.

A cryptocurrency is different from what we typically think of as money in that the ledger, or central record is distributed among many people, and all those people have a record of the complete history of all transactions and thus of the balance of every account.

A transaction in the TROPTIONS cryptocurrency is a file that says, “Sam gives X number of TROPTIONS to Samantha” and is signed by Sam’s private key. That’s basic cryptography. After signing, the transaction is broadcast in the network, sent from one peer to every other peer. That’s simple too.

Next comes confirmation of the transaction, which is critical in cryptocurrencies.

When a transaction is confirmed, it is no longer forgeable or reversible; it becomes part of an immutable record of historical transactions called the blockchain.

TROPTIONS is called a cryptocurrency because the consensus-keeping process is secured by strong cryptography, not by people or trust, but by math. This means it is statistically more probable that an asteroid would fall on your house than that a TROPTIONS address would be compromised.

Most cryptocurrencies share a common set of properties. Like other cryptocurrencies, TROPTIONS has the following transactional properties:

  • It’s irreversible. After a TROPTIONS transaction is confirmed, it cannot be reversed by anyone, anywhere, ever.
  • It’s anonymous. Transactions and accounts are not connected to real-world identities. You receive TROPTIONS on so-called addresses, which are random chains of about 30 characters.
  • It’s fast and global. Transactions appear nearly instantly in the network and are confirmed in a couple of minutes. Since they happen in a global network of computers they are completely indifferent to physical location anywhere in the world.
  • It’s secure. TROPTIONS funds are locked in a public key cryptography system. Only the owner of the private key can send cryptocurrency. Strong cryptography and the magic of big numbers makes it impossible to break this scheme. A TROPTIONS address is more secure than Fort Knox.
  • It’s permissionless. Anyone can use TROPTIONS for free. No one can prevent you from using it because there are no gatekeepers.

TROPTIONS focus is on creating a vibrant trading community.

TROPTIONS is THE real estate cybercurrency and is continually seeking interesting real estate as well as lifestyle items that will be of interest to our community. As a showcase for some of the possibilities that are presented for trade to coin holders, TROPTIONS conducts periodic auctions with offerings that are exclusively within the TROPTIONS system.

As TROPTIONS curators find offerings of particular interest to the Troption’s trading community, some will be designated for the periodic Flash Auctions to allow TROPTIONS holders a highly visible and competitive opportunity to acquire interesting offerings of their choosing.

Each flash auction will make an announced donation to benefit veterans’ causes. It is a heart-felt way of paying recognition to those who have served our country and provided us the freedom to enjoy the opportunities that TROPTIONS provide.

Flash auctions offers TROPTIONS holders a chance to acquire many unique offerings and a window to the buying power of TROPTIONS. Importantly, between auctions, interesting offerings will always be available on this site for acquisition.

All currency’s are listed on a block-chains like Xchain, this is a place for our Troptions holders to keep up with the amount of Troptions that are in their wallets and easy to transfer the Troptions in there wallets. Troptions will is on ECFX Trade Platform also and will be listed on many plateforms in the future.

Yes, after 11-11-2017 or from Troptions Holders

The IRS has stated that Crypto Currency is a product and that is way, ICO’s the investor needs to be accredited investor which will eliminate the majority of people, because Troptions sell products to our holders and services we are doing a Product Launch.

An investor who does not meet the net worth requirements for an accredited investor under the Securities & Exchange Commission’s Regulation D. A non-accredited individual investor is one who has a net worth of less than $1 million (including spouse) and who earned less than $200,000 annually ($300,000 with spouse) in.

In the United States, to be considered an accredited investor, one must have a net worth of at least $1,000,000, excluding the value of one’s primary residence, or have income at least $200,000 each year for the last two years (or $300,000 combined income if married) and have the expectation to make the same amount.

Troptions holders have bought Cars, Real Estate, Business, Hotel Rooms, Gems, Gold claims, Jet skis,Land, Lots,Animals and many other things. Troptions is growing in Value and Liquidity each and every day. Soon Gas, Insurance, Apparel, and Furniture and Airline tickets and much more as cryptocurrency becomes mainstream..

 The Troptions Holders are always looking for Real Estate, Commercial Real Estate, Businesses, Patents, Trade mark, Movies, any cash flowing businesses our holders can discount to other Troptions holders for them to use there Troptions Currency.

Easy Question. Troptions holders are buying assets each and everyday with Billions of dollars in assets bought with Troptions.The  Troptions network is developing  marketplace platform where our coin holders will be able to use their Troptions to purchase, each and every single day. Other Currency’s are limited to what you can buy with them. Troptions is a world wide currency which opens the doors to all of our holders. More assets more value. Troptions has been proven that different types of industry that will take Troptions. By the summer of 2020 Troptions will be Basel 111 complaint. Are you Ready?

EARNINGS & INCOME DISCLAIMERS

ANY EARNINGS OR INCOME STATEMENTS, OR EARNINGS OR INCOME EXAMPLES, ARE ONLY ESTIMATES OF WHAT WE THINK YOU COULD EARN. THERE IS NO ASSURANCE YOU’LL DO AS WELL. IF YOU RELY UPON OUR FIGURES, YOU MUST ACCEPT THE RISK OF NOT DOING AS WELL. WHERE SPECIFIC INCOME FIGURES ARE USED, AND ATTRIBUTED TO AN INDIVIDUAL OR BUSINESS, THOSE PERSONS OR BUSINESSES HAVE EARNED THAT AMOUNT. THERE IS NO ASSURANCE YOU’LL DO AS WELL. IF YOU RELY UPON OUR FIGURES; YOU MUST ACCEPT THE RISK OF NOT DOING AS WELL. ANY AND ALL CLAIMS OR REPRESENTATIONS, AS TO INCOME EARNINGS ON THIS WEB SITE, ARE NOT TO BE CONSIDERED AS AVERAGE EARNINGS. TESTIMONIALS ARE NOT REPRESENTATIVE. THERE CAN BE NO ASSURANCE THAT ANY PRIOR SUCCESSES, OR PAST RESULTS, AS TO INCOME EARNINGS, CAN BE USED AS AN INDICATION OF YOUR FUTURE SUCCESS OR RESULTS. MONETARY AND INCOME RESULTS ARE BASED ON MANY FACTORS. WE HAVE NO WAY OF KNOWING HOW WELL YOU WILL DO, AS WE DO NOT KNOW YOU, YOUR BACKGROUND, YOUR WORK ETHIC, OR YOUR BUSINESS SKILLS OR PRACTICES. THEREFORE WE DO NOT GUARANTEE OR IMPLY THAT YOU WILL WIN ANY INCENTIVES OR PRIZES THAT MAY BE OFFERED, GET RICH, THAT YOU WILL DO AS WELL, OR MAKE ANY MONEY AT ALL. THERE IS NO ASSURANCE YOU’LL DO AS WELL. IF YOU RELY UPON OUR FIGURES; YOU MUST ACCEPT THE RISK OF NOT DOING AS WELL. WHERE A SPECIFIC EARNINGS AMOUNT IS GIVEN, THE AMOUNT EARNED IS BEFORE REFUNDS AND NON-PAYMENTS. IN OTHER WORDS, BECAUSE I EARNED IT DOESN’T MEAN I’LL BE ABLE TO COLLECT ALL OF IT, AS THERE WILL BE REFUNDS AND NON-PAYMENTS. ALTHOUGH THE EARNINGS ARE ACTUAL EARNINGS BEFORE REFUNDS AND NON-PAYMENTS AND THE METHODS ARE THE METHODS I’VE USED TO MAKE THOSE EARNINGS, NOTHING PRESENTED SHOULD BE INTERPRETED AS TYPICAL RESULTS OR THAT YOU CAN GET SIMILAR RESULTS OR REPLICATE WHAT I HAVE DONE OR EARN ANY MONEY AT ALL. INTERNET BUSINESSES AND EARNINGS DERIVED THEREFROM, HAVE UNKNOWN RISKS INVOLVED, AND ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR EVERYONE. MAKING DECISIONS BASED ON ANY INFORMATION PRESENTED IN OUR PRODUCTS, SERVICES, OR WEB SITE, SHOULD BE DONE ONLY WITH THE KNOWLEDGE THAT YOU COULD EXPERIENCE SIGNIFICANT LOSSES, OR MAKE NO MONEY AT ALL. ONLY RISK CAPITAL SHOULD BE USED. ALL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES BY OUR COMPANY ARE FOR EDUCATIONAL AND INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. USE CAUTION AND SEEK THE ADVICE OF QUALIFIED PROFESSIONALS. CHECK WITH YOUR ACCOUNTANT, LAWYER OR PROFESSIONAL ADVISOR, BEFORE ACTING ON THIS OR ANY INFORMATION. USERS OF OUR PRODUCTS, SERVICES AND WEB SITE ARE ADVISED TO DO THEIR OWN DUE DILIGENCE WHEN IT COMES TO MAKING BUSINESS DECISIONS AND ALL INFORMATION, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES THAT HAVE BEEN PROVIDED SHOULD BE INDEPENDENTLY VERIFIED BY YOUR OWN QUALIFIED PROFESSIONALS. OUR INFORMATION, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES ON THIS WEB SITE SHOULD BE CAREFULLY CONSIDERED AND EVALUATED, BEFORE REACHING A BUSINESS DECISION, ON WHETHER TO RELY ON THEM. ALL DISCLOSURES AND DISCLAIMERS MADE HEREIN OR ON OUR SITE, APPLY EQUALLY TO ANY OFFERS, PRIZES, OR INCENTIVES, THAT MAY BE MADE BY OUR COMPANY. YOU AGREE THAT OUR COMPANY IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF YOUR BUSINESS DECISIONS RELATING TO ANY INFORMATION PRESENTED BY OUR COMPANY, OR OUR COMPANY PRODUCTS OR SERVICES.

51% Attack
If more than half the computer power on a network is run by a single person or a single group of people, then a 51% attack is in operation. This means this entity has full control of the network and can negatively affect a cryptocurrency by halting mining, stopping or changing transactions, and reusing coins.

Addresses
Every cryptocurrency coin has a unique address that identifies where it sits on the blockchain. It’s this address, this location, at which the coin’s ownership data is stored and where any changes are registered when it is traded. These addresses differ in appearance between cryptocurrencies but are usually a string of more than 30 characters.

Airdrop
This is a marketing campaign that refers to the expedited distribution of a cryptocurrency through a population of people. It usually occurs when the creator of a cryptocurrency provides its coin to low-ranked traders or existing community members in order to build their use and popularity. They are usually given away for free or in exchange for simple tasks like sharing news of the coin with friends.

Algorithm
Mathematics instructions coded into and implemented by computer software in order to produce a desired outcome.

All Time High
The highest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency.

All Time Low
The lowest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency.

Altcoins
Bitcoin was the first and is the most successful of all the cryptocurrencies. All the other coins are grouped together under the category of altcoins. Ethereum, for example, is an altcoin, as is Ripple.

AML
Acronym for “Anti-Money Laundering”

Anti-Money Laundering
These are a set of international laws that hope to prevent criminal organizations or individuals from laundering money through cryptocurrencies into real-world cash.

Application Specific Integrated Circuit
A piece of computer hardware – similar to a graphics card or a CPU – that has been designed specifically to mine cryptocurrency. They are built specifically to solve hashing problems efficiently.

Arbitrage
There are multiple exchanges at any given time trading in the same cryptocurrency, and they can do so at different rates. Arbitrage is the act of buying from one exchange and then selling it to the next exchange if there is a margin between the two that is profitable.

ASIC
Acronym for “Application Specific Integrated Circuit”

ATH
Acronym for “All Time High”

ATL
Acronym for “All Time Low”

Atomic Swap
A way of letting people directly and cost-effectively exchange one type of cryptocurrency for another, at current rates, without needing to buy or sell.

Basell 111 Compliant.


Bag
If you have a large quantity of units in a certain cryptocurrency, you’d have a bag of them.

Bear/Bearish
If the price of a cryptocurrency has a negative price movement.

Bear Trap
This is a trick played by a group of traders aimed at manipulating the price of a cryptocurrency. The bear trap is set by this group all selling their cryptocurrency at the same time, which bluffs the market into thinking there is a drop incoming. As a result, other traders sell their assets, further driving the price down. Those who set the trap then release it, buying back their assets, which are now at a lower price. The overall price then rebounds, allowing them to make a profit.

Bitcoin
The very first cryptocurrency. It was created in 2008 by an individual or group of individuals operating under the name Satoshi Nakamoto. It was intended to be a peer-to-peer, decentralized electronic cash system.

Block
The blockchain is made up of blocks. Each block holds a historical database of all cryptocurrency transactions made until the block is full. It’s a permanent record, like a bag of data that can be opened and viewed at any time.

Block Explorer
An online tool for exploring the blockchain of a cryptocurrency, where you can watch and follow, live, all the transactions happening on the blockchain. Block explorers can serve as blockchain analysis and provide information such as total network hash rate, coin supply, transaction growth, etc.

Block Height
Refers to the number of blocks connected in the blockchain. For example, Height 0 would be the very first block, which is also called the genesis block.

Block Reward
A form of incentive for the miner who successfully calculates the hash (verification) in a block. Verification of transactions on the blockchain generates new coins in the process, and the miner is rewarded with a portion of these.

Blockchain
The blockchain is a digital ledger of all the transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency. It’s comprised of individual blocks (see definition above) that are chained to each other through a cryptographic signature. Each time a block’s capacity is reached, a new block is added to the chain. The blockchain is repeatedly copied and saved onto thousands of computers all around the world, and it must always match each copy. As there is no master copy stored in one location, it’s considered decentralized.

BTFD
Acronym for “Buy The F$%king Dip”

Bull/Bullish
If the price of a cryptocurrency has a positive price movement.

Burned
If a coin in any particular cryptocurrency has been made unspendable, it is said to be burned.

Buy the F$%king Dip
A less-than-savory phrase used when you’re (enthusiastically) telling someone a currency has dipped to a low value and should be bought.

Buy Wall
When a large limit order has been placed to buy when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value, then that is a buy wall. This can prevent a cryptocurrency from falling below that value, as demand will likely outstrip supply when the order is executed.

CAP
Shorthand for market capitalization (see definition below)

Central Ledger
When a single entity has control of all financial records, it is considered to be a central ledger. This is how banks operate.

Chain Linking
Each cryptocurrency has its own blockchain – the digital ledger that stores all transaction records. Chain linking is the process that occurs if you transfer one cryptocurrency to another. This requires the transaction to be lodged in two separate blockchains, so they must link together to achieve the goal.

Cipher
The name given to the algorithm that encrypts and decrypts information.

Circulating Supply
The total number of coins in a cryptocurrency that are in the publicly tradable space is considered the circulating supply. Some coins can be locked, reserved or burned, therefore unavailable to public trading.

Cold Storage
Another term used for a paper wallet (see below).

Confirmed
When a transaction has been confirmed, it means it has been approved by the network and permanently appended to the blockchain.

Consensus
When a transaction is made, all nodes on the network verify that it is valid on the blockchain, and if so, they have a consensus.

Consensus Process
Refers to those nodes that are responsible for maintaining the blockchain ledger so that a consensus can be reached when a transaction is made.

Consortium blockchain
A privately owned and operated, yet publicly transparent, blockchain.

Cryptocurrency
A form of money that exists as encrypted, digital information. Operating independently of any banks, a cryptocurrency uses sophisticated mathematics to regulate the creation and transfer of funds between entities.

Cryptographic Hash Function
This process happens on a node and involves converting an input – such as a transaction – into a fixed, encrypted alphanumeric string that registers its place in the blockchain. This conversion is controlled by a hashing algorithm, which is different for each cryptocurrency.

Cryptography
The process of encrypting and decrypting information.

DAO
Acronym for “decentralized autonomous organization”

dApp
Shorthand for “decentralized application”

Decentralized Application
A computer program that utilizes a blockchain for data storage, runs autonomously, is not controlled or operated from a single entity, is open source and has its use incentivized by the reward of fees or tokens.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization
Refers to organizations that are run by an application (computer program) rather than direct human input. Control of this application is granted to everyone rather than a single central entity.

Decryption
Turning encrypted cipher text back into plain text.

Deflation
When the demand for a particular cryptocurrency decreases, bringing down the price of its economy.

Depth Chart
This graph plots the requests to buy (known as bids) and the requests to sell (known as asks) on a chart. Because you can put a limit order on your buy or sell transaction, the depth chart shows the crossover point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction in a timely fashion. It also shows if there are any significant buy walls or sell walls in play.

Deterministic Wallet
This type of wallet is created by producing multiple keys from a seed. If you lose this wallet, your wallet key can be recovered from the seed. Plus, when you make transactions, instead of producing new keys each time, you use variations from the seed, which makes it more transferable and easier to store.

Difficulty
When someone refers to difficulty in the cryptocurrency space, they are referring to the cost of mining in that moment in time. The more transactions that are trying to be confirmed at any single moment in time, divided by the total power of the nodes on the network at that time, defines the difficulty. The higher the difficulty, the greater the transaction fee – this is a fluid measurement that moves over time.

Digital Commodity
An intangible, hard-to-get asset that is transferred electronically and has a certain value.

Digital Currency
Another term for digital commodity

Digital Signature
Used to confirm that a document being transmitted electronically is authentic. They generally appear as a code generated
by a public key encryption.

Distributed Ledger
A ledger that is stored in multiple locations so that any entries can be accessed and checked by multiple parties. In cryptocurrency, this refers to the blockchain being held on multiple nodes on the network, all of which are checked simultaneously.

Double Spend
This occurs when someone tries to send a cryptocurrency to two different wallets or locations at the same time.

Dump
The term used to describe selling all (or a lot) of your cryptocurrency.

Dumping
When a lot of people dump at once, causing a sharp downward movement in a cryptocurrency’s price.

Dust Transaction
Sometimes people will look to slow the network by deliberately flooding it with minor transactions that are incredibly small. These minuscule amounts are referred to as a dust transaction.

DYOR
Acronym for “do your own research”.

Encryption
Converting plain text into unintelligible text with the use of a cipher.

ERC
Stands for “Ethereum request for comments” and is a summation of proposed improvements to the Ethereum system.

ERC-20
The standard to which each Ethereum token complies. It defines the way that each token behaves so that transactions are predictable. Other cryptocurrencies also use the ERC-20 standard, piggybacking on the Ethereum network in the process.

Escrow
When an intermediary is used to hold funds during a transaction, those funds are being held in escrow. This is usually a third party between the entity sending and the one receiving.

Ethereum
One of the top three cryptocurrencies in the world based on its market capitalization. Despite being open source and based on blockchain technology, it differs from bitcoin in two key ways: it allows developers to create dApps and also write smart contracts.

Ethereum Virtual Machine
A virtual machine, effectively sitting in the cloud, that is Turing complete and is used by all nodes on the network during blockchain confirmations. It allows those on the node to execute random EVM Byte Code, which is part of the Ethereum Protocol.

EVM
Stands for Ethereum Virtual Machine.

Exchange
The platform through which cryptocurrencies are exchanged with each other, with fiat currencies and between entities. Exchanges can vary widely in the currency conversions they enable and their fee structures.

FA
Acronym for “fundamental analysis”.

Faucet
If you find a website that offers to give you free cryptocurrency for connecting with them, it is termed a faucet. The majority of these are scams.

Fiat
Refers to money recognized as legal tender by governments, such as the US dollar, British pound, Euro and Australian dollar.

FOMO
An acronym for “fear of missing out”.

Fork
When a new version of a blockchain is created, resulting in two versions of the blockchain running side-by-side, it is termed a fork. As a single blockchain forks into two, they will both run on the same network. Forks are categorized into two categories: soft or hard.

Frictionless
If there is no transaction cost and no restraints on trading, then the system is considered frictionless.

FUD
Acronym for “fear, uncertainty and doubt”.

Full Node
Some nodes download a blockchain’s entire history in order to enforce its rules completely. As they fully enforce the rules, they are considered a full node.

Fundamental Analysis
A method through which you can attach value to a coin by looking at similar economic and financial factors and researching the underlying motives of the creators and market opinion.

Futures Contract
This is a pre-approved contract between two entities to fulfill a transaction when the value of cryptocurrency hits a certain price. It’s different than a limit order in that the buyer and seller are already nominated and bound. A future contract becomes relevant when a buyer wants to go short and a seller wants to go long on the asset.

Gas
Gas a is measurement given to an operation in the Ethereum network that relates to the computational power required to complete it. That measurement relates to the fee offered to miners who process that transaction. Other operations have a small cost of 3 to 10 gas, but a full transaction costs 21,000 gas.

Gas Limit
When users make a transaction on the Ethereum network, they set their gas limit, which is the most they are willing to pay as a fee for that transaction. If the transaction is going to cost more gas than what is offered, the transaction will not go through. If it costs less, the difference will be refunded.

Gas Price
The amount you are willing to pay for a transaction on the Ethereum network. If you want miners to process your transaction fast, then you should offer a higher price. Gas prices are usually denominated in Gwei.

Genesis Block
The first or first few blocks of a blockchain.

Group Mining
Another term used to describe a mining pool (see below).

Gwei
The denomination used in defining the cost of gas. Set a gas price of 20,000 Gwei, for example.

Halving
Every time miners approve transactions on the bitcoin blockchain, they earn bitcoin. As each block on the blockchain fills up with transactions, a certain amount of bitcoin enter the marketplace. However, the number of bitcoin that will ever be created is finite, locked at 21 million. In order to ensure this cap is kept, the amount of bitcoin earned by miners for filling one block is halved at the completion of that block. This is called halving. For the record, by the year 2140, all 21 million bitcoin will be in circulation.

Hard Cap
During an ICO, the creator can set a hard cap. This is the maximum amount it planned to raise, and it will therefore stop offering coins at this figure.

Hard Fork
A fork in the blockchain that converts transactions previously labeled invalid to valid, and vice versa. For this fork to work, all nodes on the network must upgrade to the newest protocol.

Hardware Wallet
A physical device, similar to a USB stick, that stores cryptocurrency in its encrypted form. It’s considered the most secure way to hold cryptocurrency.

Hash
The shorthand for cryptographic hash function (see description above).

Hash Rate
Measurement of performance that reveals how many hashes per second your computer is capable of producing. Each hash is an attempt to find a block by creating a unique block candidate and testing it against the network.

Hashing Power
The hash rate of a computer, measured in kH/s, MH/s, GH/s, TH/s, PH/s or EH/s depending on the hashes per second being produced. 1,000 kH/s = 1 MH/s, 1,000 MH/s = 1 GH/s and so forth.

HODL
Acronym for “hold on for dear life”.

ICO
Acronym for “initial coin offering”.

Initial Coin Offering
In order to raise funds, the creator of a cryptocurrency will put an initial batch of its coins up for purchase. This is an initial coin offering.

JOMO
Acronym for “joy of missing out”.

KYC
Acronym for “know your customer”, which refers to a financial institution’s obligation to verify the identity of a customer in line with AML laws.

LAMBO
Shorthand for Lamborghini, which is how someone might refer to themselves if they are getting rich quickly. The idea being there is so much money coming in that they are going to go buy an exotic car.

Ledger
A record of financial transactions. A ledger cannot be changed, it can only be appended with new transactions.

Leverage
A loan of sorts offered by a broker on an exchange during margin trading (see below).

Lightning Network
A peer-to-peer system for cryptocurrency micropayments that is focused on low latency, instant payments. They’re typically low cost, scalable and can work across chains, and transactions can be public or private.

Limit Order/Limit Buy/Limit Sell
If you set a rule whereby a cryptocurrency is sold or bought when at a certain price, you are setting a limit order. When traders place an order for a buy or sell, the system looks for these limit orders.

Liquidity
The liquidity of a cryptocurrency is defined by how easily it can be bought and sold without impacting the overall market price.

Locktime
If a transaction request comes with a rule delaying when it can be processed to a certain time or certain block on the blockchain, that is referred to as the locktime.

Long
When you intend to take a large amount of cryptocurrency and stockpile it with the anticipation that it will grow in value, you are going long (or taking a long position).

MACD
Acronym for “Moving Average Convergence Divergence”.

Margin Bear Position
This is the position you are taking if you are going “short”.

Margin Bull Position
This is the position you are taking if you are going “long”.

Market Capitalization
This is defined as the total number of coins in supply multiplied by the price. Cap = supply x price.

Margin Trading
A risky strategy used by experienced traders where they risk their existing coins to magnify the intensity of their trades. This allows them to buy more than they can afford using leverage provided by an exchange.

Market Order
As opposed to a limit order, a market order does not wait until a certain price to buy or sell; it trades wherever the price is at the time the transaction order is made.

MCAP
Acronym for “market capitalization”.

Mining
The term, somewhat confusingly, given to the process of verifying transactions on a blockchain. In the process of solving the encryption challenges, the person donating the computer power is granted new fractions of the cryptocurrency.

Mining Contract
An investment in mining hardware whereby you rent out the hashing power of mining hardware for a certain amount of time. The renter does not pay for the hardware or the maintenance and electricity required to run it.

Mining Pool
If a number of miners combine their computing power together to try and help complete the transactions required to start a new block in the blockchain, they are in a mining pool. The rewards are spread proportionately between those in the mining pool based on the amount of power they contributed. The idea is that being in a mining pool allows for better chances of successful hashing and therefore getting enough cryptocurrency reward to produce an income.

Money Services Business
A legal term used to represent an entity that transfers or converts money.

Moon
A term used to describe a major price movement upwards. For example, Ripple is mooning.

Moving Average Convergence Divergence
A part of the technical analysis of a cryptocurrency’s value, this tracks the momentum of price change to try and forecast into the future.

MSB
Acronym for “money services business”.

Multipool Mining
If a miner moves from one cryptocurrency blockchain to another depending on the profitability provided by the network at that moment in time, they are engaging in multipool mining.

Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig) Wallets
If, in order for a transaction to go through, more than one user needs to provide their unique code, then it is multi-signature. This system is set up at the creation of the account and is considered less susceptible to theft.

Network
A network refers to all the nodes committed to helping the operation of a blockchain at any given moment in time.

Node
Any computer that is connected to a blockchain’s network is referred to as a node.

Nonce
When a miner hashes a transaction, a random number is generated, called a nonce. The parameters from which that number is chosen change based on the difficulty of the transaction.

OCO
Acronym for “one cancels the other order”.

One Cancels the Other Order
When two orders for cryptocurrency are placed simultaneously with a rule in place whereby if one is accepted, the other is cancelled.

Oracles
The smart contracts stored on a blockchain are stuck within the network. They can only be reached by the external world through a program called an oracle. The oracle sends the data to and from the smart contract and the outside world as required. Oracles are most commonly found on the Ethereum network.

Overbought
If a large number of purchases have been made on a cryptocurrency, its price will increase for an extended period of time. At this juncture, it is considered overbought and a period of selling is expected.

Oversold
If a cryptocurrency has spent significant time being sold without an upward movement, it is considered oversold. In this condition, there would be concerns about whether it will bounce back.

Paper Wallet
Storing your wallet code (your private key) on a physical document makes it a paper wallet. It’s also sometimes referred to as cold storage.

P2P
Acronym for “peer to peer”.

Peer to Peer
In a peer-to-peer connection, two or more computers network with each other without a centralized third party being used as an intermediary.

PND
Acronym for “pump and dump”.

Pre-Sale
A period before an ICO goes public when private investors or community members are able to buy the cryptocurrency.

Private Key
A string of numbers and letters that are used to access your wallet. While your wallet is represented by a public key, the private key is the password you should protect (with your life). You need your private key when selling or withdrawing cryptocurrencies, as it acts as your digital signature.

Proof of Authority (PoA)
A private key that gives the holder the right to create the blocks in a private blockchain. It can be held by a single entity or a set number of entities. This is an alternative to the proof-of-work model, as instead of getting multiple random nodes to approve a transaction, a group of specific nodes are given the authority to approve. This is a far faster method.

Proof of Stake (PoS)
Another alternative to proof of work, this caps the reward given to miners for providing their computational power to the network at that miner’s investment in the cryptocurrency. So if a miner holds three coins, they can only earn three coins. The system encourages miners to stick with a certain blockchain rather than converting their rewards to an alternate cryptocurrency.

Proof of Use (PoU) 

Proof of Use (PoU) is when a cryptocurrency is used to buy goods and service or barter for goods and services and is not traded as a speculative coin for someone to buy low and sell high but used as a form of currency and leverage.

Proof of Work (PoW)
In order to receive a reward for mining a cryptocurrency, miners must show that their computers contributed effort to approve a transaction. A variable is added to the process of hashing a transaction that demands that effort before a block can be successfully hashed. Having a hashed block proves the miner did work and deserves a reward – hence proof of work.

Protocols
The set of rules that defines how data is exchanged across a network.

Public blockchain
A blockchain that can be accessed by anyone through a full node on their computer.

Public Key
This is your unique wallet address, which appears as a long string of numbers and letters. It is used to receive cryptocurrencies.

Pump
This is a term used to refer to an upward price movement, usually driven by whales investing large sums of money in a cryptocurrency.

Pump and Dump
The frowned-upon practice of buying a lot of one cryptocurrency to drive up its price and encourage others to invest, then selling the lot when there is a suitable margin.

REKT
Shorthand slang for “wrecked” and a term used to describe a bad loss in a trade.

Relative Strength Index
A type of technical analysis whereby you determine the momentum of price change over time. It looks at recent changes in price exponentially, with the most recent changes given more weight than older ones. This produces an overall trend of movement for a cryptocurrency that can determine if the market is overbought (a reading higher than 70) or oversold (a reading lower than 30).

Ring Signature
A ring signature is a type of encryption process that retains anonymity for the user. The concept gives the network of nodes the power to approve a transaction on a blockchain without identifying which of the nodes requested the transaction. As a result, it cannot be traced.

RSI
Acronym for “Relative Strength Index”.

Satoshi Nakamoto
The individual, or group of individuals – it has never been confirmed – who created bitcoin.

SATS
This is the smallest unit of bitcoin, which is 0.00000001 BTC. The name SATS is shorthand for Satoshi Nakamoto, which is the fake name used by the creator of bitcoin.

Scrypt
An algorithm that encrypts a key in such a fashion that it takes a serious amount of RAM to hash it. The system makes it challenging to attack for hackers. Despite its spelling, Scrypt is pronounced “ess-crypt”.

Seed
The origin point from which you created your wallet ID. Usually, a seed is a phrase or a series of words that can be used to regenerate your wallet ID if you lose it. Something to keep very secret.

Segregated Witness
The processes of separating digital signature data from transaction data. This lets more transactions fit onto one block in the blockchain, improving transaction speeds.

SEGWIT
Acronym for “segregated witness”.

Selfish Mining
If a miner finds or creates a new block in the blockchain and then doesn’t share that information with the network, he or she is partaking in selfish mining. This is because other miners are now burning their computational power on an old block, allowing the selfish miner to get a head start on the new block.

Sell Wall
When a large limit order has been placed to sell when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value, that is a sell wall. This can prevent a cryptocurrency from rising above that value, as supply will likely outstrip demand when the order is executed.

SHA-256
The name of the cryptographic hash function (the hashing algorithm) used by bitcoin. It’s been subsequently used by a number of altcoins too.

Sharding
Sharding is a way of splitting up the full blockchain history so each full node doesn’t need the whole copy of it. It’s considered a scaling solution for blockchains because as they grow larger, it begins to slow the network performance if every node is required to carry the full blockchain.

Shit Coin
No points for guessing this one. It’s a term used to describe a cryptocurrency not expected to have a positive future.

Short
Also known as short selling, this is a concept whereby traders sell an asset they don’t have. The hope is that they can then buy the asset at a lower price than which they sold it to complete the deal. Thereby they earn a margin in the interim.

Smart Contracts
When a contract is written in computer code, as opposed to traditional legal language, it is deemed a smart contract. This programmed contract is set up to execute and carry itself out automatically under specified conditions. When a smart contract is on the blockchain, both parties can check its programming before agreeing to it, and then let it do its thing, confident that it cannot be tampered with or changed. It lets two parties agree to complex terms without needing to trust each other and without needing to involve any third parties. This functionality is the defining feature of the Ethereum blockchain.

Soft Fork
A fork in a blockchain protocol where previously valid transactions become invalid. A soft fork is backwards-compatible, as the old nodes running the old protocol will still consider new transactions valid, rather than disregarding them. For a soft fork to work, a majority of the miners powering the network will need to upgrade to the new protocol.

Software Wallet
A common form of wallet where the private key for an individual is stored within software files on a computer. This is the system you are likely to use if you sign up for a wallet online that is not associated with an exchange.

Solidity
A programming language similar to JavaScript but focused on developing smart contracts. It’s exported as bytecode, which is used by the Ethereum Virtual Machine that runs the Ethereum network.

TA
Acronym for “technical analysis”.

Technical Analysis
Using a trading tool to look at historical data on a cryptocurrency in the hope of forecasting its future.

Test Net
When a cryptocurrency creator is testing out a new version of a blockchain, it does so on a test net. This runs like a second version of the blockchain but doesn’t impact the value associated with the primary, active blockchain.

Timestamp
The moment in time when a transaction was encrypted and regarded as proof that the data compiled in that transaction existed.

Token
The “coin” of a cryptocurrency is a token. Effectively, it’s the digital code defining each fraction, which can be owned, bought and sold.

Tokenless Ledger
When a distributed ledger exists but doesn’t need a currency in which to operate. With these blockchains, the miners upholding the network typically don’t get a reward/payment.

TOR
Acronym for “terms of reference”.

Transaction
The value of cryptocurrency moved from one entity to another on a blockchain network.

Transaction Fee
Usually very small fees given to the miners involved in successfully approving a transaction on the blockchain. This fee can vary depending on the difficulty involved in a transaction and overall network capabilities at that moment in time. If an exchange is involved in facilitating that transaction, it could also take a cut of the overall transaction fee.

Turing Completeness
If a machine is capable of performing all conceivable programmable calculations, then it is Turing complete. This machine can process any computable function and includes most modern computers.

Unconfirmed
When a transaction is proposed, it is unconfirmed until the network has examined the blockchain to ensure that there are no other transactions pending involving that same coin. In the unconfirmed state, the transaction has not been appended to the blockchain.

Unspent Transaction Output
This refers to the amount of cryptocurrency sent to an entity but not sent on elsewhere. These amounts are considered unspent and are the data stored in the blockchain.

UTXO
Acronym for “unspent transaction output”.

Volatility
The fluctuation in an asset’s price is measured by its volatility. Cryptocurrency prices are notoriously volatile compared to other assets, as dramatic price shifts can happen quickly.

Wallet
A wallet is defined by a unique code that represents its “address” on the blockchain. The wallet address is public, but within it is a number of private keys determining ownership of the balance and the balance itself. It can exist in software, hardware, paper or other forms.

Whale
A term used to describe extremely wealthy investors or traders who have enough funds to manipulate the market.

Whitelist
Prior to an ICO, interested parties can sign up/register their involvement and intent to purchase or even purchase under pre-sale conditions. The list of these parties is referred to as the whitelist.

White Paper
A detailed explanation of a cryptocurrency, designed to offer satisfactory technical information, explain the purpose of the coin and set out a roadmap for how it plans to succeed. It’s designed to convince investors that it’s a good choice ahead of an ICO.

Zero Confirmation Transaction
Alternative phrasing for an unconfirmed transaction.